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Adult, artist, author, child, cook, cousin, dancer, driver, friend, engineer,  journalist, lover, painter, parent, prisoner, singer, student, teacher, etc.

Most nouns are the same for both male and female

boy                 girl               cock/rooster         hen

brother           sister            bull                       cow

father             mother          dog                      bitch

king               queen           horse                    mare

man               woman 

nephew         niece

son                daughter

uncle             aunt

Some are totally different in each gender

host              hostess

prince           princess

heir               heiress

waiter           waitress

actor            actress

duke            duchess

steward       stewardess


animal, bird, building, clothing, distance, fish, flower, food, furniture, plant, time, tree, weather, etc.

Are used for things, animals and abstract nouns.

Some add "ss" or "ess" for feminine
Some drop a vowel before adding "
Some change "
ke" by "ch" before adding "ess"

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